Whos Who in World War I (Whos Who (Routledge))

H. G. Wells
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One of the ways that Wells expressed himself was through his drawings and sketches. One common location for these was the endpapers and title pages of his own diaries, and they covered a wide variety of topics, from political commentary to his feelings toward his literary contemporaries and his current romantic interests. During his marriage to Amy Catherine, whom he nicknamed Jane, he drew a considerable number of pictures, many of them being overt comments on their marriage.

During this period, he called these pictures "picshuas". He also wrote realistic novels that received critical acclaim, including Kipps and a critique of English culture during the Edwardian period , Tono-Bungay. Wells also wrote dozens of short stories and novellas, including, "The Flowering of the Strange Orchid", which helped bring the full impact of Darwin 's revolutionary botanical ideas to a wider public, and was followed by many later successes such as " The Country of the Blind " According to James Gunn , one of Wells's major contributions to the science fiction genre was his approach, which he referred to as his "new system of ideas".

While neither invisibility nor time travel was new in speculative fiction, Wells added a sense of realism to the concepts which the readers were not familiar with. He conceived the idea of using a vehicle that allows an operator to travel purposely and selectively forwards or backwards in time. The term "time machine", coined by Wells, is now almost universally used to refer to such a vehicle.

Being aware the notion of magic as something real had disappeared from society, he, therefore, used scientific ideas and theories as a substitute for magic to justify the impossible. Wells's best-known statement of the "law" appears in his introduction to The Scientific Romances of H.

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Wells ,. As soon as the magic trick has been done the whole business of the fantasy writer is to keep everything else human and real. Touches of prosaic detail are imperative and a rigorous adherence to the hypothesis. Any extra fantasy outside the cardinal assumption immediately gives a touch of irresponsible silliness to the invention. An enthusiast of random and irresponsible violence, Griffin has become an iconic character in horror fiction. Radioactive decay plays a much larger role in The World Set Free This book contains what is surely his biggest prophetic "hit", with the first description of a nuclear weapon.

The rate of release is too slow to have practical utility, but the total amount released is huge. Wells's novel revolves around an unspecified invention that accelerates the process of radioactive decay, producing bombs that explode with no more than the force of ordinary high explosives—but which "continue to explode" for days on end. Wells also wrote non-fiction. When originally serialised in a magazine it was subtitled "An Experiment in Prophecy", and is considered his most explicitly futuristic work.

It offered the immediate political message of the privileged sections of society continuing to bar capable men from other classes from advancement until war would force a need to employ those most able, rather than the traditional upper classes, as leaders.

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Anticipating what the world would be like in the year , the book is interesting both for its hits trains and cars resulting in the dispersion of populations from cities to suburbs; moral restrictions declining as men and women seek greater sexual freedom; the defeat of German militarism , and the existence of a European Union and its misses he did not expect successful aircraft before , and averred that "my imagination refuses to see any sort of submarine doing anything but suffocate its crew and founder at sea".

His bestselling two-volume work, The Outline of History , began a new era of popularised world history. It received a mixed critical response from professional historians. Many other authors followed with "Outlines" of their own in other subjects.

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From quite early in Wells's career, he sought a better way to organise society and wrote a number of Utopian novels. The first of these was A Modern Utopia , which shows a worldwide utopia with "no imports but meteorites, and no exports at all"; [68] two travellers from our world fall into its alternate history. The others usually begin with the world rushing to catastrophe, until people realise a better way of living: whether by mysterious gases from a comet causing people to behave rationally and abandoning a European war In the Days of the Comet , or a world council of scientists taking over, as in The Shape of Things to Come , which he later adapted for the Alexander Korda film, Things to Come.

This depicted, all too accurately, the impending World War , with cities being destroyed by aerial bombs. Men Like Gods is also a utopian novel. Wells in this period was regarded as an enormously influential figure; the critic Malcolm Cowley stated: "by the time he was forty, his influence was wider than any other living English writer".

Wells contemplates the ideas of nature and nurture and questions humanity in books such as The Island of Doctor Moreau. Not all his scientific romances ended in a Utopia, and Wells also wrote a dystopian novel, When the Sleeper Wakes , rewritten as The Sleeper Awakes , , which pictures a future society where the classes have become more and more separated, leading to a revolt of the masses against the rulers. The narrator, having been trapped on an island of animals vivisected unsuccessfully into human beings, eventually returns to England; like Gulliver on his return from the Houyhnhnms , he finds himself unable to shake off the perceptions of his fellow humans as barely civilised beasts, slowly reverting to their animal natures.

Wells also wrote the preface for the first edition of W. Barbellion 's diaries, The Journal of a Disappointed Man , published in Since "Barbellion" was the real author's pen name , many reviewers believed Wells to have been the true author of the Journal ; Wells always denied this, despite being full of praise for the diaries. In , a Canadian teacher and writer Florence Deeks unsuccessfully sued Wells for infringement of copyright and breach of trust, claiming that much of The Outline of History had been plagiarised from her unpublished manuscript, [73] The Web of the World's Romance , which had spent nearly nine months in the hands of Wells's Canadian publisher, Macmillan Canada.

Wells, and the Mystery of the Purloined Past. This re-examines the case in relation to McKillop's book. While having some sympathy for Deeks, he argues that she had a weak case that was not well presented, and though she may have met with sexism from her lawyers, she received a fair trial, adding that the law applied is essentially the same law that would be applied to a similar case today i. In , Wells predicted in The Shape of Things to Come that the world war he feared would begin in January , [80] a prediction which ultimately came true four months early, in September , with the outbreak of World War II.

In , he published a collection of essays on the future organisation of knowledge and education, World Brain , including the essay "The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia". Prior to , Wells's books were widely read in Germany and Austria, and most of his science fiction works had been translated shortly after publication. At a PEN conference in Ragusa , Wells refused to yield to Nazi sympathisers who demanded that the exiled author Ernst Toller be prevented from speaking.

Seeking a more structured way to play war games, Wells also wrote Floor Games followed by Little Wars , which set out rules for fighting battles with toy soldiers miniatures. After dinner, Jerome began shooting down toy soldiers with a toy cannon and Wells joined in to compete.

Wells visited Russia three times: , and During his second visit, he saw his old friend Maxim Gorky and with Gorky's help, met Vladimir Lenin. In his book Russia in the Shadows , Wells portrayed Russia as recovering from a total social collapse, "the completest that has ever happened to any modern social organisation. President Franklin D.

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Roosevelt , Wells went to the Soviet Union and interviewed Joseph Stalin for three hours for the New Statesman magazine, which was extremely rare at that time. He told Stalin how he had seen 'the happy faces of healthy people' in contrast with his previous visit to Moscow in Stalin enjoyed the conversation and replied accordingly. Before he left, he realized that no reform was to happen in the near future.

Wells's literary reputation declined as he spent his later years promoting causes that were rejected by most of his contemporaries as well as by younger authors whom he had previously influenced. In this connection, George Orwell described Wells as "too sane to understand the modern world".

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Chesterton quipped: "Mr Wells is a born storyteller who has sold his birthright for a pot of message". Wells had diabetes , [93] and was a co-founder in of The Diabetic Association now Diabetes UK , the leading charity for people with diabetes in the UK. During the interview, by Charles C Shaw, a KTSA radio host, Wells admitted his surprise at the widespread panic that resulted from the broadcast but acknowledged his debt to Welles for increasing sales of one of his "more obscure" titles.

Wells died of unspecified causes on 13 August , aged 79, at his home at 13 Hanover Terrace, overlooking Regent's Park , London. You damned fools". A commemorative blue plaque in his honour was installed by the Greater London Council at his home in Regent's Park in He foresaw world wars creating a federalised Europe.

Britain, he thought, would not fit comfortably in this New Europe and would identify more with the US and other English-speaking countries.

This was an extraordinary insight for an author writing in , and it made a deep impression on Winston Churchill. Winston Churchill was an avid reader of Wells' books, and after they first met in they kept in touch until Wells died in His efforts regarding the League of Nations , on which he collaborated on the project with Leonard Woolf with the booklets The Idea of a League of Nations , Prolegomena to the Study of World Organization , and The Way of the League of Nations , became a disappointment as the organization turned out to be a weak one unable to prevent the Second World War, which itself occurred towards the very end of his life and only increased the pessimistic side of his nature.

Wells wrote in his book God the Invisible King that his idea of God did not draw upon the traditional religions of the world:. This book sets out as forcibly and exactly as possible the religious belief of the writer.

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Putting the leading idea of this book very roughly, these two antagonistic typical conceptions of God may be best contrasted by speaking of one of them as God-as-Nature or the Creator, and of the other as God-as-Christ or the Redeemer. One is the great Outward God; the other is the Inmost God. The first idea was perhaps developed most highly and completely in the God of Spinoza.

It is a conception of God tending to pantheism, to an idea of a comprehensive God as ruling with justice rather than affection, to a conception of aloofness and awestriking worshipfulness. The second idea, which is contradictory to this idea of an absolute God, is the God of the human heart. The writer would suggest that the great outline of the theological struggles of that phase of civilisation and world unity which produced Christianity, was a persistent but unsuccessful attempt to get these two different ideas of God into one focus.

Later in the work, he aligns himself with a "renascent or modern religion Of Christianity , he said: "it is not now true for me. Every believing Christian is, I am sure, my spiritual brother Of other world religions, he writes: "All these religions are true for me as Canterbury Cathedral is a true thing and as a Swiss chalet is a true thing. There they are, and they have served a purpose, they have worked. Only they are not true for me to live in them. They do not work for me". The science fiction historian John Clute describes Wells as "the most important writer the genre has yet seen", and notes his work has been central to both British and American science fiction.

This was a dazzling display of new thought, endlessly copied since. A book like The War of the Worlds inspired every one of the thousands of alien invasion stories that followed. It burned its way into the psyche of mankind and changed us all forever. Beresford , [] S. Fowler Wright , [] and Naomi Mitchison , [] all drew on Wells's example. Wells was also an important influence on British science fiction of the period after the Second World War, with Arthur C.

Clarke [] and Brian Aldiss [] expressing strong admiration for Wells's work. Among contemporary British science fiction writers, Stephen Baxter , Christopher Priest and Adam Roberts have all acknowledged Wells's influence on their writing; all three are Vice-Presidents of the H.

Wells Society. He also had a strong influence on British scientist J. Haldane gave several lectures about these topics which in turn influenced other science fiction writers. In the United States, Hugo Gernsback reprinted most of Wells's work in the pulp magazine Amazing Stories , regarding Wells's work as "texts of central importance to the self-conscious new genre".

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