It mainly guides and standardizes the advance direction of enterprises through formulating systems at the macro level. The relationship market mainly includes the relationship between the relevant government departments at all levels where the enterprise is located, the relationship with the industry association to which the enterprise belongs, and the relationship with all kinds of public organizations, etc.
The final relational market is the industry's competitors, potential competitors, alternative competitors and so on. How to correctly deal with the relationship between competitors and the market has become a problem that large retail enterprises need to solve.
Retail designers pay close attention to the front of the store, which is known as the decompression zone. This is usually an open space in the entrance of the store to allow customers to adjust to their new environment. An open-plan floor design is effective in retail as it allows customers to see everything.
In terms of the store's exterior, the side of the road cars normally travel, determines the way stores direct customers. New Zealand retail stores, for instance, would direct customers to the left. In order to maximise the number of selling opportunities, retailers generally want customers to spend more time in a retail store.
However, this must be balanced against customer expectations surrounding convenience, access and realistic waiting times. The retail service environment plays an important role in affecting the customer's perceptions of the retail experience. The retail environment not only affects quality perceptions, but can also impact on the way that customers navigate their way through the retail space during the retail service encounter.
Layout, directional signage, the placement of furniture, shelves and display space along with the store's ambient conditions all affect patron's passage through the retail service system. Layout refers to how equipment, shelves and other furnishings are placed and the relationship between them.
In a retail setting, accessibility is an important aspect of layout. For example, the grid layout used by supermarkets with long aisles and gondolas at the end displaying premium merchandise or promotional items, minimises the time customers spend in the environment and makes productive use of available space. For example, the meat cabinet at the supermarket might use a merchandise outpost to suggest a range of marinades or spice rubs to complement particular cuts of meat. As a generalisation, merchandise outposts are updated regularly so that they maintain a sense of novelty.
According to Ziethaml et al. Signs and symbols provide cues for directional navigation and also inform about appropriate behaviour within a store. Functionality refers to extent to which the equipment and layout meet the goals of the customer. The way that brands are displayed is also part of the overall retail design. Where a product is placed on the shelves has implications for purchase likelihood as a result of visibility and access. Products placed too high or too low on the shelves may not turn over as quickly as those placed at eye level.
Through sensory stimulation retailers can engage maximum emotional impact between a brand and its consumers by relating to both profiles; the goal and experience. Purchasing behaviour can be influenced through the physical evidence detected by the senses of touch, smell, sight, taste and sound.
Coffee shops allow the aroma of coffee to waft into streets so that passers-by can appreciate the smell and perhaps be lured inside. Clothing garments are placed at arms' reach, allowing customers to feel the different textures of clothing. Within the retail environment, different spaces may be designed for different purposes. Hard floors, such as wooden floors, used in public areas, contrast with carpeted fitting rooms, which are designed to create a sense of homeliness when trying on garments.
Peter Alexander , retailer of sleep ware, is renowned for using scented candles in retail stores. Ambient conditions, such as lighting, temperature and music, are also part of the overall retail environment. Studies have found that "positively valenced music will stimulate more thoughts and feeling than negatively valenced music", hence, positively valenced music will make the waiting time feel longer to the customer than negatively valenced music.
The design of a retail store is critical when appealing to the intended market, as this is where first impressions are made. The overall servicescape can influence a consumer's perception of the quality of the store, communicating value in visual and symbolic ways.
Certain techniques are used to create a consumer brand experience, which in the long run drives store loyalty. Two different strands of research have investigated shopper behaviour. One strand is primarily concerned with shopper motivations. Another stream of research seeks to segment shoppers according to common, shared characteristics.
To some extent, these streams of research are inter-related, but each stream offers different types of insights into shopper behaviour.
The requirements for the four-year program leading to the Bachelor of Arts Degree in International Trade are a total of minimum credit hours of course work along with 60 workdays of summer training. Coleen Jacobs How can I improve my memory and concentration? Cases in Retailing. Topics include company policies towards exports, investigating and choosing export markets, international trade terminology, import-export risks, pricing and payment methods, export-import organization, logistics and financing. The store from where Tim purchased the handset must have shown him several options for him to select one according to his budget and need. Foreign freight forwarder. Classical, neoclassical and contemporary theories of international trade; empirical evidence from real life.
Babin et al. Utilitarian motivations are task-related and rational. For the shopper with utilitarian motives, purchasing is a work-related task that is to be accomplished in the most efficient and expedient manner. On the other hand, hedonic motives refer to pleasure. The shopper with hedonic motivations views shopping as a form of escapism where they are free to indulge fantasy and freedom.
Buy Strategic Issues in International Retailing: Concepts and Cases 1 by John Dawson (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices. All the above attributes make the concept of retail internationalisation much is no longer the case as there has been a dramatic increase in international retail.
Hedonic shoppers are more involved in the shopping experience. Many different shopper profiles can be identified. Retailers develop customised segmentation analyses for each unique outlet. However, it is possible to identify a number of broad shopper profiles. One of the most well-known and widely cited shopper typologies is that developed by Sproles and Kendal in the mids.
Some researchers have adapted Sproles and Kendall's methodology for use in specific countries or cultural groups. The retail format also known as the retail formula influences the consumer's store choice and addresses the consumer's expectations. At its most basic level, a retail format is a simple marketplace , that is; a location where goods and services are exchanged.
In some parts of the world, the retail sector is still dominated by small family-run stores, but large retail chains are increasingly dominating the sector, because they can exert considerable buying power and pass on the savings in the form of lower prices. Many of these large retail chains also produce their own private labels which compete alongside manufacturer brands.
Considerable consolidation of retail stores has changed the retail landscape, transferring power away from wholesalers and into the hands of the large retail chains. In Britain and Europe, the retail sale of goods is designated as a service activity. The European Service Directive applies to all retail trade including periodic markets, street traders and peddlers. Retailers carrying highly perishable foodstuffs such as meat, dairy and fresh produce typically require cold storage facilities.
Softline retailers sell goods that are consumed after a single use, or have a limited life typically under three years in they are normally consumed. Soft goods include clothing , other fabrics , footwear , toiletries , cosmetics , medicines and stationery. Grocery stores, including supermarkets and hypermarkets, along with convenience stores carry a mix of food products and consumable household items such as detergents, cleansers, personal hygiene products.
Consumer consumables are collectively known as fast-moving-consumer goods FMCG and represent the lines most often carried by supermarkets, grocers and convenience stores. For consumers, these are regular purchases and for the retailer, these products represent high turnover product lines. Grocery stores and convenience stores carry similar lines, but a convenience store staffed or automated is often open at times that suit its clientele and may be located for ease of access.
Retailers selling consumer durables are sometimes known as hardline retailers  — automobiles , appliances , electronics , furniture , sporting goods , lumber , etc. Goods that do not quickly wear out and provide utility over time.
For the consumer, these items often represent major purchase decisions. Consumers purchase durables over longer purchase decision cycles. For instance, the typical consumer might replace their family car every 5 years, and their home computer every 4 years. Specialist retailers operate in many industries such as the arts e.
Furniture and homewares retailers are said to be hardline retailers. Pictured Furniture retailer in Hong Kong. Stores that sell a mix of perishable and consumable goods to cater for household needs are known as grocery stores. Types of retail outlets retail shops , retail stores by marketing strategy include:. A shopping arcade refers to a group of retail outlets operating under a covered walkway.
Arcades are similar to shopping malls, although they typically comprise a smaller number of outlets. Shopping arcades were the evolutionary precursor to the shopping mall, and were very fashionable in the late 19th century.
Stylish men and women would promenade around the arcade, stopping to window shop, making purchases and also taking light refreshments in one of the arcade's tea-rooms. Arcades offered fashionable men and women opportunities to 'be seen' and to socialise in a relatively safe environment. Arcades continue to exist as a distinct type of retail outlet. Historic 19th-century arcades have become popular tourist attractions in cities around the world. Amusement arcades , also known as penny arcades in the US, are more modern incarnation of the eighteenth and nineteenth century shopping arcade.
An anchor store also known as draw tenant or anchor tenant is a larger store with a good reputation used by shopping mall management to attract a certain volume of shoppers to a precinct. The term, ' bazaar ' can have multiple meanings.