Java is a multithreaded language.
To improve the performance of programs that must accomplish several tasks at once, Java supports the concept of threaded execution. For example, a program that manages a Graphical User Interface GUI while waiting for input from a network connection uses another thread to perform the wait instead of using the default GUI thread for both tasks.
This keeps the GUI responsive. Java's synchronization primitives allow threads to safely communicate data between themselves without corrupting the data. See threaded programming in Java discussed elsewhere in the Java series. Java is a dynamic language. Because interconnections between program code and libraries happen dynamically at runtime, it isn't necessary to explicitly link them.
As a result, when a program or one of its libraries evolves for instance, for a bug fix or performance improvement , a developer only needs to distribute the updated program or library.
Although dynamic behavior results in less code to distribute when a version change occurs, this distribution policy can also lead to version conflicts. For example, a developer removes a class type from a library, or renames it. When a company distributes the updated library, existing programs that depend on the class type will fail.
To greatly reduce this problem, Java supports an interface type , which is like a contract between two parties.
See interfaces, types, and other object-oriented language features discussed elsewhere in the Java series. Unpacking this definition teaches us a lot about Java. Most importantly, it reveals that Java is both a language and a platform. You'll learn more about Java platform components--namely the Java virtual machine and Java execution environment--later in this tutorial.
Sun Microsystems released the Java 1. The first JDK was used to develop desktop applications and applets, and Java subsequently evolved to encompass enterprise-server and mobile-device programming. Storing all of the necessary libraries in a single JDK would have made the JDK too large to distribute, especially because distribution in the s was limited by small-size CDs and slow network speeds.
Java SE is the foundation platform for Java and is the focus for the Java series.
Code examples will be based on the most recent version of Java at the time of writing, Java Java is both a programming language and a platform for running compiled Java code. This platform consists mainly of the JVM, but also includes an execution environment that supports the JVM's execution on the underlying native platform. The JVM includes several components for loading, verifying, and executing Java code.
Figure 1 shows how a Java program executes on this platform. Figure 1. At the top of the diagram is a series of program class files, one of which is denoted as the main class file. A Java program consists of at least the main class file, which is the first class file to be loaded, verified, and executed.
The JVM delegates class loading to its classloader component. Classloaders load class files from various sources, such as file systems, networks, and archive files. They insulate the JVM from the intricacies of class loading.
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A loaded class file is stored in memory and represented as an object created from the Class class. Once loaded, the bytecode verifier verifies the various bytecode instructions to ensure that they are valid and won't compromise security. If the class file's bytecodes are not valid, the JVM terminates. Otherwise, its interpreter component interprets the bytecode one instruction at a time. Interpretation identifies bytecode instructions and executes equivalent native instructions.
Some bytecode instruction sequences execute more frequently than others.
When the interpreter detects this situation, the JVM's just-in-time JIT compiler compiles the bytecode sequence to native code for faster execution. Inheritance in Java, Part 2: Object and Java polymorphism and its types Show More. Download the source code for example applications in this tutorial. Created by Jeff Friesen for JavaWorld. Java Language Basics. Currently reading. Learn Java from the ground up. Elementary Java language features. Evaluate Java expressions with operators. Loop, switch, or take a break? Deciding and iterating with Classes and objects in Java.
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