Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Third Edition

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He would have liked to see married men ordained as priests, and, as this was not allowed, he encouraged the elderly natural leaders of the communities to become catechists.

Troubled Presidency

Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Historical Dictionaries of Africa) Third Edition. by Emizet Francois Kisangani (Author), Scott F. historical dictionary of the democratic republic of the congo. EMIZET FRANCOIS KISANGANI. F. SCOTT BOBB. THIRD EDITION. ΒΈ hist orical diction ar y of the.

It was his hope that such a council would eventually lead to the synthesis of the valuable elements of African traditional ways of life with Christianity, which has been seen as desirable since the Second Vatican Council. He died on 12 July in a clinic in Brussels. Ralph Ewechue ed. Thompson and R.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Vatikiotis, The History of Egypt , 3rd ed. Zell and H. Silver eds.

Additionally, the country's large mine operations attract migrant workers from Africa and beyond and there is considerable migration for commercial activities from other African countries and the rest of the world, but these movements are not well studied. Transit migration towards South Africa and Europe also plays a role.

Immigration in the DRC has decreased steadily over the past two decades, most likely as a result of the armed violence that the country has experienced. According to the International Organization for Migration , the number of immigrants in the DRC has declined from just over 1 million in , to , in , to , in , to an estimated , in Official figures are unavailable on migrant workers, partly due to the predominance of the informal economy in the DRC.

Data are also lacking on irregular immigrants, however given neighbouring country ethnic links to nationals of the DRC, irregular migration is assumed to be a significant phenomenon in the country. Figures on the number of Congolese nationals abroad vary greatly depending on the source, from 3 to 6 million.

This discrepancy is due to a lack of official, reliable data. Emigrants from the DRC are above all long-term emigrants, the majority of which live within Africa and to a lesser extent in Europe; New destination countries include South Africa and various points en route to Europe. The DRC has produced a considerable number of refugees and asylum-seekers located in the region and beyond.

Since , more than , Congolese migrants have been expelled from Angola.

There are about 35 million Catholics in the country. Schatzberg has called it the country's "only truly national institution apart from the state.

Congo, Republic of the

The church owns and manages an extensive network of hospitals, schools, and clinics, as well as many diocesan economic enterprises, including farms, ranches, stores, and artisans' shops. Kimbanguism was seen as a threat to the colonial regime and was banned by the Belgians. Kimbanguism, officially "the church of Christ on Earth by the prophet Simon Kimbangu", now has about three million members, [] primarily among the Bakongo of Bas-Congo and Kinshasa.

With more than 25 million members, it constitutes one of the largest Protestant bodies in the world. The first members of the Baha'i Faith to live in the country came from Uganda in Four years later the first local administrative council was elected. In the National Spiritual Assembly national administrative council was first elected.

Though the religion was banned in the s and s, due to misrepresentations of foreign governments, the ban was lifted by the end of the s. In plans were announced to build a national Baha'i House of Worship in the country. Traditional religions embody such concepts as monotheism , animism , vitalism , spirit and ancestor worship , witchcraft , and sorcery and vary widely among ethnic groups. The syncretic sects often merge elements of Christianity with traditional beliefs and rituals and are not recognized by mainstream churches as part of Christianity.

New variants of ancient beliefs have become widespread, led by US-inspired Pentecostal churches which have been in the forefront of witchcraft accusations particularly against children and the elderly. The usual term for these children is enfants sorciers child witches or enfants dits sorciers children accused of witchcraft and can lead to physical violence against these children. Though recently outlawed, children have been subjected to often-violent abuse at the hands of self-proclaimed prophets and priests.

French is the official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is culturally accepted as the lingua franca facilitating communication among the many different ethnic groups of the Congo. Approximately languages are spoken in the country, but only four have the status of national languages: Kituba "Kikongo ya leta" , Lingala , Tshiluba , and Swahili.

Although some people speak these regional, or trade languages as first languages, most of the population speak them as a second language after their own tribal language. Lingala was made the official language of the colonial army, the " Force Publique ", under Belgian colonial rule, and it remains to this day the predominant language in the armed forces.

Since the recent rebellions, a good part of the army in the East also uses Swahili where it is prevalent. When the country was a Belgian colony, the Belgian colonizers instituted teaching and use of the four national languages in primary schools, making it one of the few African nations to have had literacy in local languages during the European colonial period.

This trend was reversed after independence with French made the sole language of education at all levels. A Hemba male statue. Since the late 19th century, traditional ways of life have undergone changes brought about by colonialism , the struggle for independence, the stagnation of the Mobutu era, and most recently, the First and Second Congo Wars.

Despite these pressures, the customs and cultures of the Congo have retained much of their individuality. The country's 60 million inhabitants are mainly rural. Another notable feature in Congo culture is its music. The DRC has blended its ethnic musical sources with Cuban rumba , and merengue to give birth to soukous. The same Congolese soukous, under the guidance of "le sapeur", Papa Wemba , has set the tone for a generation of young men always dressed up in expensive designers' clothes, they came to be known as the 4th generation of Congolese music and they mostly come from the former well-known band Wenge Musica.

The Congo is also known for its art. Traditional art includes masks and wooden statues. Many sports are played in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including football , basketball and rugby. The sports are played in numerous stadiums throughout the country, including the Stade Frederic Kibassa Maliba. Internationally, the country is especially famous for its NBA players.

Dikembe Mutombo is one of the best African basketball players to ever play the game. Mutombo is well known for humanitarian projects in his home country. CD , [] a web-based daily. A dense tropical rainforest in the DRC's central river basin and eastern highlands is bordered on the west within the Albertine Rift the western branch of Africa's Great Rift System and includes several of Africa's Great Lakes. Because of sunlight, potential for solar development is very high in the DRC. Also, the Caritas network system has a total power of 6.

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Lingala Kituba "Kikongo ya leta" Swahili Tshiluba. Contents [ show ]. Further information: Name of the Congo.

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Main article: History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Early Congolese history. Main article: Belgian Congo.

3rd Edition

Main article: Congo Crisis. Main article: Zaire. Main article: Geography of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Further information: Administrative divisions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Wildlife of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Bas-Congo landscape. A male Western gorilla. The African forest elephant. Main article: Politics of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Main article: Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Transport in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Rail transport in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Energy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: Education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.